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Tiết 40: Thực vật

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DIRECT SPEECH AND REPORTED SPEECHI. Definition:1. nói tr ti pờ là chính xác nh ng ng nói.ự ườ- nói tr ti trong ngo kép và sau ng chính có ph y(,) ượ ẩho hai ch m(:).ặ ấ- Đôi khi nh chính cũng có th sau nói tr ti p.ệ ếEx: don’t like this party” Bill said.2. nói gián ti (indirect/reported speech)ờ là ng thu ng nói, ườ ườđôi khi không ph dung đúng nh ng ng nói.ầ ườEx: Bill said that he didn’t like that party.II. Nh ng thay trong nói gián ti p:ữ 1. Thay ng tổ Thì các ng tộ trong nói gián ti thay theo tờ ộnguyên chung là lùi quá kh (các thì xu ng p):ắ ấDirect Speech Reported Speech1. Present Simple:V1Ex1: Nam said “I am told to be at school before o’clock”Ex2: He said like beer”2. Present Progressive: am/is/are +VingEx: He said “I’m watching TV”3. Present Perfect: has/have V3/edEx: He said have just bought new book”4. Past Simple: V2/edEx: They said We came by car ”5. Past Progressive: was/were V-ingEx: He said “I was sitting in the park at o’clock”6. Past Perfect: had V3/edEx: She said My money had run out”7. Future Simple: will +V without to (V0)Ex: Lan said “I’ll phone you” 1. Past Simple:V2/edEX1: Nam said (that) he was told to be atschool before o’clock.Ex2: He said (that) He liked beer2. Past Progressive:was/were+VingEx: He said (that) he was watching TV3. Past Perfect: had V3/edEx: He said (that) had just bought new book4. Past Perfect: had V3/edEx: They said (that) they had come by car5. was/were+V-ing or Past Perfect progressiveEx:-He said that he was sitting in the park at o’clock”- He said that )he had been sitting in thepark at o’clock”6. Past Perfect: had V3/edEx: She said that) her money had run out18. canEx: He said you can sit here”9. mayEx: Mary said “I may go to Ha noi again”10. mustEx: He said “I must finish this report” 7. would without to Vo)Ex: Lan said that) she would phone me8. couldEx He said that) we could sit there9. mightEx: Mary said that) shemight go to Ha noi again10. must/ had toEx: He said that)he had to finish that report* Chú ý: tr ng không thì ng trong câu gián ti p:ộ ườ ế- ng nh gi thi dùng thì hi n, hi ti di n,ế ượ ễhi hoàn thành ho ng lai n, thì ng trong câu gián ti nệ ươ ẫkhông thay iổ Eg: He says/ he is saying/ he has said/ he will say, “the text is difficult”. He says/ is saying/ has said/ will say (that) the text is difficult.- Khi câu nói tr ti th hi chân lý ho hành ng th ngự ườxuyên, thì ng trong câu gián ti không thay iủ Eg: My teacher said “The sun rises in the East” My teacher said (that) the sun rises in the East. He said, ‘My father always drinks coffee after dinner’ He said (that) his father always drinks coffee after dinner- lúc ng thu t, đi th gian ra trong nói gián ti ch aế ườ ượ ưqua, thì ng và tr ng th gian gi nguyênủ ượ Eg: He said, will come to your house tomorrow” He said (that) he will come to my house tomorrow.- Câu tr ti có ng câu đi ki lo ho lo 3:ự ạEg: He said; “If knew her address, would write to her” He said that he would write to her If he knew her address Eg: She said, “If had enough money, would buy new bicycle.” She said (that) if she had enough money, she would buy new bicycle. Eg: The teacher said, “If John had studied harder, he wouldn’t have failed his exam.” The teacher said (that) if John had studied harder, he wouldn’t have failed his exam. Tuy nhiên nói tr ti là câu đi hi lo thì chuy sang lo ượ ởl nói gián ti pờ Eg: The advertisement said; “If you answer the questions correctly, you may win one million dollar” The advertisement said that might win one million dollar If answered the questions correctly. 2- Không thay thì nh sau “wish’ổ Eg: He said; “I wish had lot of money” He wishes (that) he had lot of money Không thay thì nh sau “It’s (high/ about) time”ổ Eg: She said; “It’s about time you went to bed; children” She told her children that It’s about time they went to bed Không thay thì nh đi sau ‘would rather, would sooner”ổ Eg: She said; “I would rather you stayed at home” She said that she would rather stayed at hone- Không thay thì a:ổ Could, would, might, should Ought, had better, need trong câu nói gián ti ếNh ng must -> had to/ mustưEg: She said; “I could do the homework She said the she could do the homework ng trong câu nói tr ti có th gian xác nh:ộ Eg: He said, “I was born in 1980” he said that he was born in 1980.- nh tr ng ng ch th gian trong câu ph có thì quá kh và quá kh ti pệ ếdi nễEg: “I saw him when he was going to the cinema” She said she saw him when she was going to the cinema2. Thay nhân ng, u, tính u:ổ ữ nhân ngạ Ch ng ữTân ngữTr ti pự gián ti pếMe Him/ herus Themyou Them/ him/ herTính uừ ữTr ti pự Gián ti pếmy His/ herour Theiryour Their/ his/her/ myĐ uạ Tr ti pự Gián ti pếI He, shewe theyYou They/ he/ she/ I3Tr ti pự Gián ti pếmine Him/ hersours Theirsyours Theirs/ his/ hers3. Thay ch th gian và ch n:ổ ốTr ti pự Gián ti pếToday/ tonight that day/ that nightYesterday the day before/ the previous daylast month/ night the month before the previous month/ nightTomorrow the following day/ the next daythis moth that monthThe day before yesterday two days beforeThe day after tomorrow in two days’ timenext month the month after the following monthHere thereNow thenAgo beforeThis thatThese those* Chú ý:- NÕu êng thuËt vÉn cïng ®Þa ®iÓm vµ thêi gian, chóng takh«ng thay ®æi th× cña ®éng tõ, tÝnh tõ chØ ®Þnh vµ tr¹ng ng÷thêi gian vµ n¬i chèn. Eg: He said will come here to take this book tonight”. An hour ago he said he will come here to take thisbook tonight.- Thªm liªn tõ vµo c©u êng thuËt chØ nguyªn nh©nEg: She said am very tired have worked overnight.” She said she was very tires because she had beenworked.III. Nh ng thay th trong ng lo câu trong nói gián ti pữ 1. Câu tr thu trong nói gián ti p: (Statements in reported speech)ầ said (to O) that V…… told that V…. Eg: ‘We will have test tomorrow’, My teacher said. -> My teacher said (that) they would have test the next day.*Note: Có th ng ĐT sau: thought, announced, explained, ẫcomplained, believed… 2. Câu trong nói gián ti (Questions in reported speech)ỏ ế4 Chó Khi chuy câu tr ti thành gián ti cũng áp ng qui cể ắchuy trên, ngoài ra thay i:ể ổ- ng ng thu câu gián ti là asked/ wanted to know/ wondered tộ ườ ựh i)ỏ- Tr chuy ng tr thu là ch ng ng tr ng và khôngậ ướ ừcó tr ng tợ ừ- Không dùng liên “that’, “?” điừ ượ ỏa. Yes/ no questions:S asked if whether clause Eg: Tuan asked Ba “Are you fond of watching television?” Tuan asked Ba if/whether he was fond of watching televisionb. Wh-questions:S asked (O) wh word clause Eg: He said to me, “Why did you go with her father last week?” He asked me why had gone with her father the week before. Chú ý: Trong tr ng câu tr ti có câu tr thu và câu khi sangườ ổcâu gián ti ph nào đi ph yế Eg: have left my watch at home. Can you tell me the time?” He said that he had left his watch at home and asked me if could tell him the time 3. Câu nh nh trong nói gián ti (Imperative in reported speech)ệ Khi ®æi c©u mÖnh lÖnh trùc tiÕp thµnh c©u mÖnh lÖnh gi¸ntiÕp, cÇn ý: §éng tõ êng thuËt lµ: ordered, commanded (ra lÖnh), requested,asked (yªu cÇu), told (b¶o lµm T©m ng÷ trùc tiÕp chØ ng êi nhËn mÖnh lÖnh îc nªu lªn. H×nh thøc mÖnh lÖnh cña ®éng tõ trong c©u mÖnh lÖnh trùctiÕp ®æi thµnh ®éng tõ nguyªn thÓ. (+) He/ she ordered object to infinitive commandedtoldaskedrequested Eg: “Please wait for minute.” The man asked me The man asked me to wait for minute. Would you mind opening the door” she asked me. She asked me to open the door. He said to the waiter, Please bring me some hot water.” He told to the waiter to bring him some hot water. said to her “Please shut the window.” asked her to shut the window. (-) He/ she ordered object not to infinitive5toldasked Eg: Please don’t talk loudly”. He asked me not to talk loudly. He said “Don’t shut the door”. He asked me not to shut the door.4. Câu thán trong nói gián ti p: (Exclamationin reported speech)ả ế- ng ng thu là: exclaim/shout ườ Eg: He said, What lovely garden they have” He exclaimed that they had lovely garden.- Các hình th thán ng “what’ và “how” chuy sang gián ti ng:ứ He said that it was ho He exclaimed that it was …ặEg1: She said; “What pity!” (Direct speech) -> She exclaimed that it was pityEg2: said; “What nice horse” -> exclaimed that it was nice hoeseEg3: He said; “How beautiful she is!”-> He exclaimed that she was beautiful! Eg4: “What big egg” he said -> He said that it was big egg.Eg5: How dreadful!” he said -> He exclaimed that it was dreadful.5. Reported speech with to infinitive Khi lêi nãi gi¸n tiÕp lµ lêi ®Ò nghÞ, mÖnh lÖnh, ®Þnh, lêi høa, lêiyªu cÇu, ...®éng tõ êng thuËt cïng víi ®éng tõ nguyªn mÉu theo sauth êng dïng ®Ó truyÒn t¶i néi dung lêi nãi trªn. §éng tõ êng thuËt t©n ng÷ ®éng tõ nguyªn mÉu (to-infinitive)* §éng tõ êng thuËt: ask, advise, command, invite, order, recommend, encourage, urge, warn, want., beg, instruct, persuade… §éng tõ êng thuËt ®éng tõ nguyªn mÉu (to-infinitive)* §éng tõ êng thuËt: agree, demand, hope, promise, threaten, offer, refuse, decide... Would you/ Could you Will you/ Can yo -> asked+ sb to V Would you mind V-ing /Do you mind V-ing -> asked sb to +V Would you like/ Will you invited sb to a. ngh i:ề invite (O) to offer to …Ex: He said, “Would you like to go out for drink?”---> He invited me to go out for drink. She said to me; “How about some coffee”-> She invited me some coffee will look after the house for you if you like” he said.-> He offered to look after the house for me if liked. Ta ng Would you like to V... How about …/ Why don’t you ờ6Eg: Why don’t you come to my village to have day off? Offer: Would you like me to Shall do.../ Can I…? Could …? I’ll do if you like Eg: Can help you with the dishes? Shall shut the door?Would you like drink? Would you like to come for meal? b. Yêu u: (đ ng ng thu ask)ầ ườ ậEx: She said, “Can you lend me your book?”---> She asked me to lend her my book. Ta cã thÓ sö dông Could you….? Can you …? Would you mind …? Or câu nh ệl nh yêu uệ Would you mind closing the door?” he asked me to close the door. Can you close the door? Close the door ,please .* “I’d like…” “Can have…?” khi chuy sang gián ti ta áp ếd ng trúc ấ“ Could have…?”S asked someboby for somethingEx: In restaurant, the man said; “I’d like bottle of red wine, please”-> The man asked for bottle of red wine c. Khuyên o:ảEx: “You should study harder,” my mother said.---> My mother advised me to study harder. *Lêi khuyªn th êng b¾t ®Çu b»ng: You should You ought to V........... If were you would/ should You had better Why don’t you ….Eg’ Why don’t you repaint our room? She advised me to repaint their room.Chuy sang gián ti có trúc sau: advised to d. nh nhờ ở“ Remember…” khi chuy sang nói gián ti ta áp ng trúc ấsauDon’t for getS remind(ed) someboby to Infinitive verbEx: She said to me; “Don’t forget to ring me up tomorrow evening”-> She reminded me to ring her up the bext eveining e. ng quan đi nh all right, yes, of course (áp ng trúc sau):ự agreed to verb…Ex: “All right, I’ll wait for you” he said-> He agreed to wait for me f. Caâu tröïc tieáp dieãn taû ñieàu mong muoán nhö: would like, wish (aùp duïng caáu truùc sau): wanted obj to verb…7Ex: “I’d like Lan to become doctor,” my mum said -> My mum wanted Lan to become doctor g. ch refused to …Eg: ‘No, won’t lend you my car”-> He refused to lend me his car. h. a: promised to V…ờ ứEg: ‘I’ll send you card on your birthday” -> He promised to send me card on my birthday.* Công th chung khi sang câu ng thu to V:ứ ườ (+ O) to V6. Reported speech with gerund: (câu gián ti danh ng )ế Khi nói gián ti là ngh chúc ng, n, xin ….đ ng ngờ ườthu cùng danh ng theo sau nó th ng dùng truy dung nóiậ ườ ờtrên. ng ng thu V-ing.......ộ ườ ng ng thu t:ộ ườ deny, admit, suggest, regret ...........Ex: He said to me; “Let’s go home”-> He suggested going home ng ng thu gi Ving…ộ ườ ừ* ng ng thu t: ườ dream of, object to, insist on, complain about, think of,look forward to......... Ex: “I’ll help you with your physics exercise,” Peter said to Susan.---> Peter insisted on helping Susan with her physics exercise. ng ng thu gi tân ng Ving…ộ ườ ng ng thu t: ườ thank sb for, accuse sb of, congratulate sb on, apologize sb for, warn sb against, prevent sb from, stop sb from… Ex1: “It was nice of you to help me. Thank you very much,” Tom said to you.---> Tom thanked me for helping him.Ex2: “I’m sorry I’m late,” Peter said.---> Peter apologised for being late. Danh ®éng tõ êng thuËt th êng ®i theo ®éng tõ êng thuËt SUGGEST trong c¸c mÉu c©u ®Ò nghÞ sau: Why don you/ Why not How about -> suggest sb V-ing Let’s Let’s not -> suggest V-ing/ suggest not+ V-ing Shall we/ It’s good idea -> suggest V-ing.a. n, xin i:ả thanked s.o for v-ing apologized for (not) v-ing8S apologized to s.o for (not) v-ingEx1: “It was nice of you to help me. Thank you very much,” Tom said to you.---> Tom thanked me for helping him.Ex2: “I’m sorry I’m late,” Peter said.---> Peter apologised for being late.b. Chúc ng:ừS congratulated s.o on v-ingEx: John said, “I heard you received the scholarship. Congratulations!”---> John congratulated me on receiving the scholarship.“ hear you passed your exams. Congratulations!” John said to us. -> Tom congratulated us on passing our exams c. ng quy t, khăng khăng:ươ ếS insisted on v-ing…Ex: “I’ll help you with your physics exercise,” Peter said to Susan.---> Peter insisted on helping Susan with her physics exercise. I’ll drive you to the station. insist,” Peter said to Linda-> Peter insisted on driving Linda to the station d. nh báo, ngăn n: ảL nh báo nh :ờ be careful, be dangerous a. warned s.o to verb… b. warned s.o against v-ing …ex1: “Be careful of strangers and don’t go out at night”; he said -> He warned us to be careful strangers and not to out at night Ex2: “Don’t stay at the near the airport,” said to Ann-> warned Ann against staying at the hotel near the airport Ex3: “Don’t go out alone at night,” said to Linda. ---> warned Linda agaisnt going out alone at night.Ng ăn n: prevented, stopped s.o from v-ing…Ex1: “Stay here! can’t let you go out tonight,” her mother said to Jane-> Her mother prevented Jane from going out that night Ex2: “Sit here. can’t let you stand all the time,” Mary said to me.---> Mary prevented me from standing all the time.e. Ch nh ho ph nh n:ấ ậEx1: “We stole his money,” they said.---> They admitted stealing his money.Ex2: “I didn’t steal his money,” she said.---> She denied stealing his money.f. ngh ý: ợS suggest (not) V-ing …S1 suggest (ed) That S2 should bare infinitiveEx: He said to me; “Let’s go home”-> He suggested going home 9-> He suggested that we should go home Ex: “Let’s go out for drink,” Susan said.---> Susan suggested going out for drink. Lêi ®Ò nghÞ, gîi th êng b¾t ®Çu b»ng: sö dông “could” ®Ó gîi ý: She could phone her Shall we Shall we go and see film?Shall we talk about something different now?- What about …/ How about V-ing Let’s …… ./ Why don’t we What about going to Judy's?How about using my car? Let's go outside.Why don't you write to her yourself?g. cáo, bu i:ố ộEx: “You took some of my money,” he said.---> He accused me of taking some of his money.h. c:ơ ướS dreamed of v-ing…Ex: “I want to pass the exam with flying colours,” John said.---> John dreamed of passing the exam with flying colours.“ I’ve always wante to be rich, Bob said -> Bob had always dreamed of being richi. Söï suy nghó veà caùi gì (aùp duïng caáu truùc sau) think (thought) of +v-ing…Ex: John’s wife: The house is very nice! We’ll certainly buy it John think so -> John and his wife were thinking of buying the house. k. öï chaáp nhaän (aùp duïng caáu truùc sau) admitted v-ing…Detective: You have stolen Mrs. Brown’s car!The thief|: Yes…! But… -> The thief admitted stealing/having stolen Mrs Brown’s car l. Söï mong ñôïi (aùp duïng caáu truùc sau) looked forward to v-ing…Ex: “Mr.Smith: feel like meeting our children soon” Mrs Smith: think so -> Mr and Mrs. Smith looked forward to meeting their children soon 7. Các hình th trong nói gián ti p: (mixed forms in reportedứ ếspeech) nói tr ti có th bao nhi hình th p: câu kh ng nh, câu i,ờ ỏcâu nh nh, câu thán:ệ ả10