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Unit 6. ENDANGERED SPECIESPart I. PHONETICS Exercise 1. Mark the letter A, B, or to indicate the word whose underlined part differs from the other three in pronunciation in each of the following questions. 1. A. endan ered B. orilla C. lobal D. dra on A. ch ange B. poa ch ing C. ch emical D. ch ievement 3. A. orn B. ve icle C. ippo D. abitat 4. A. sp cies B. st C. sp cial D. lpful 5. A. norkelling B. ensitive C. diver ity D. re erveExercise 2. Mark the letter A, B, or to indicate the word that differs from the other three in the position of the primary stress in each of the following questions. 6. A. visit B. extinct C. survive D. evolve 7. A. dangerous B. survivor C. habitat D. vulnerable 8. A. convenient B. endanger C. critical D. tradition 9. A. pollution B. collision C. protection D. valuable 10. A. migrate B. giant C. panda D. rhinoPart II. VOCABULARY Exercise 3. Mark the letter A, B, or to indicate the word(s) CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions. 11. All types of dinosaurs went extinct long time ago. A. thrived B. boomed C. survived D. died out 12. We need to prepare for our biology assignment about endangered plant species.A. harmless B. dangerous C. likely to go extinct D. harmful 13. These animals are quite vulnerable when living near the industrial zone. A. calm B. easily hurt C. safe D. relaxed 14. Every year, in Africa lot of elephants are poached for tusks. A. illegally hunted B. gently cooked C. boiled D. stewed15. More complex animals gradually evolved from these very simple creatures. A. resolved B. involved C. revolted D. developed 16. Many species are threatened in the wild due to habitat destruction by man. A. usual behaviour B. favourite activity C. place of living D. rituals17. These animals are now on the verge of extinction .A. natural tendency B. no longer existing C. thriving D. developing18. This forest contains many rare specie of plants. A. in small numbers B. real C. half-cock D. not done properly19. Many birds didn't survive the severe winter. A. have enough food B. surprise C. get over D. continue to live20. The main threat to the survival of these creatures comes from their loss of habitat.A. service B. surprise C. continuing to exist D. no longer existing21. Darwin's theory of evolution incorporates the principle of natural selection.A. radical revolution B. gradual developmentC. radical resolution D. practical involvement22. Environmentalists try to persuade the governments to see the need to preserve biological diversity .A. variety B. directio C. similarity D. closeness 23. Through the years they have made significant contributions to species conservation .A. protest B. protection C. production D. induction 24. There are several reasons why we should protect endangered species. A. argue against B. disapprove C. guard from harm D. make known 25. We need to take action to help preserve fish stocks. A. serve B. prepare C. reserve D. conserve 26. At the moment it is difficult to assess the extent of the damage that his company has caused to the environment. A. loss B. useful benefits C. advantage D. nuances 27. The rainforest is being systematically destroyed A. developed B. exploited C. expanded D. devastated 28. number of mammal species roamed widely around the northern hemisphere. A. wandered B. roared C. explored D. discovered 29. Komodo dragons are fierce hunters and can eat very large preys. A. sharp B. aggressive C. friendly D. cooperative 30. What was fascinating to me was the way the creatures moved. A. extremely fast B. completely boring C. extremely interesting D. completely motivating 31. Environmentalists dedicate lot of their time to running campaigns to raise people's awareness about protecting endangered species. A. eliminate B. save C. waste D. devote 32. Malaysia local authorities have made efforts to restore the population of sea turtles. A. pay back B. realize C. relax D. give back33. Many wildlife reserves have been set up in this country. A. money reserves B. booking reservations C. protected areas D. emergency fund 34. Turtle enclosures save baby turtles from natural predators like birds, crabs, and lizards. A. survivors B. hunters C. savers D. protectors 35. Dinosaurs were unable to survive severe ice age weather conditions. A. harsh B. separate C. safe D. serious 36. We should have better law enforcement to stop poaching. A. implementation B. enlightenment C. encouragement D. endorsement37. Money spent on protecting endangered species should be used for improving me of the local people.A. improvising B. enhancing C. implementing D. enacting 38. Today, the elephants' population is declining A. remaining stable B. going up C. decreasing D. developing 39. Fish are still abundant in that lake. A. scarce B. available C. decreasing D. plentiful 40. Elephants play an important role in maintaining biodiversity. A. retaining B. stopping C. pausing D. ending 41. Elephants break up thorny bushes to create grasslands for other animals to inhabit A. come in B. live in C. like D. prefer 42. Elephants droppings are vital to the environment. A. controversial B. trivial C. essential D. optionalExercise 4. Mark the letter A, B, or to indicate the word(s) OPPOSITE in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions. 43. The fire will go out unless we put some more wood on. A. go off B. go in C. stop burning D. continue burning 44. Let's clear up this rubbish and put it in the bin. A. mess up clear away C. tidy D. clear off 45. The environmental pollution level in this area has built up lot over recent years. A. increased B. decreased C. blocked D. concentrated 46. All visitors are kept out of the conservation area. A. prevented from entering B. prevented from destroying C. allowed to enter D. allowed to take photos 47. It is predicted that the natural resources will run out by the end of the century. come in B. run short C. run away D. remain intact 48. It is urgent that these governments work out solution to the problem that they are all facing. A. keep secret B. find C. share D. arrive at49. In order to protect endangered species, it is important that all people join in .A. participate B. leave C. take part D. enjoy50. Many people decided to give up eating meat and become vegetarians.A. cut up B. put up C. continue D. use upPart III. GRAMMAR Exercise 5. Mark the letter A, B, or to indicate the underlined part that needs correction in each of the following questions. 51. As soon as we will arrive we will unpack the car. D52. By this time next week, am lying on beach on the Bahamas D53. When will see him, will tell him you want to speak to him .A D54. Take book with you in case you will have to wait for long time D55. Do you realize that by this time next week we have been in Paris? D56. I'm sure you will be glad when we finally will arrive D57. By the time we will arrive everybody will have left D58. Looking at the schedule it says the boat will leaves at ten tonight.A D59. know Jenny calls later and as soon as she does I'm going to tell her what's happened. D60. The more time you spend on prepare for the test, the higher scores you may get D61. The more you practise speaking in your class, the more better you are at public speaking. D62. The more better study about endangered species, the more worry about their extinction D63. The warmer the weather get around the world the faster the polar ice caps will melt .A D64. The more renewable energy sources we use the more better our living conditions will become .A D65. As people need more land to build houses they cut down on more forests .A D66 The unemployment rate is getting higher so that the crime rate is becoming higher as well. DExercise 6. Mark the letter A, B, or to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions. 67. Rare animal extinction is one of the things that could have happened. A. good B. best C. worse D. worst 68. We need to do this ____ than we are at the moment. A. quickly B. the quickest C. more quickly D. most quickly 69. Mary speaks English better than her sister ____.A. is B. C. has D. can 70. Looking after kitten is ____ more difficult than thought it would be. A. far B. farther C. further D. father 71. Living in big city isn't ____ interesting as thought it would be.A. less B. most C. more D. as 72. It has been really bad journey, but think the ____ is behind us. A. good B. better C. worst D. worse 73. I'm quite disappointed in you as know you can do ____.A. bad B. better C. worst D. good 74. He arrived ____ than anyone else, so he had to wait more than an hour. A. earlier B. more early C. early D. earliest 75. It is getting hotter and ____ every summer. guess that is the result of global warming. A. less B. more C. colder D. hotter 76. The meal was bit ____ expensive than we expected, but it was very nice. A. least B. less C. more D. most 77. I've never eaten such strange thing ____ this before. A. similar B. as C. same D. look like 78. By the time we get there, the film ____.A. starts B. started C. will start D. will have started 79. If we don't protect these rare species, they ____ by 2030s. A. die out B. will die out C. will have died out D. have died out 80. Next December, they ____ for twenty years. A. will have been married B. have been married C. are married D. were married 81. By the time you come home, ____ the decorating .A. have finished B. will have finished C. are finishing D. finished82. By the year 2050, computers ____ teachers. A. replace B. will replace will have replaced D. have replaced83. Jim and Laura ____ here for four years next June.A. have lived B. will live C. will be living D. will have lived 84. This chess game is going to last ages. They ____ it until midnight. won't have finished B. will finish have finished D. finish 85. ____ this book by the time it is due back to the library? A. Will you read B. Will you have read C. Will you be reading D. Have you read 86. hope ____ before I'm thirty. A. win lot of prizes B. will win lot of prizes C. will have won lot of prizes D. have won lot of prizes 87. Maybe ____ famous by the age of thirty-five. A. become B. have become C. will become D. will have become 88. hope ____ millions of dollars from my business by the age of forty. A. make B. will make C. have made D. will have made 89. At ten o'clock, ____ my mathematics homework for three hours. A. will be doing B. will have been doing C. have done D. do90. We probably ____ by the time you get home. A. don't leave B. won't leave C. won't have left D. haven't leftPart IV. SPEAKING Exercise 7. Mark the letter A, B, C, or to indicate the correct response to each of the following exchanges. Two friends Nam and Lan are talking about the topic of endangered species. 91. Nam: Would you like to join my wildlife protection team? Lan: ____A. Yes, like working for this organization very much. B. Thank you. I've always wanted to do something to help. C. Where is it located?D. There are so many wildlife protection teams. 92. Lan: Can we meet this Sunday to discuss our plan for the wildlife protection project? Nam: ____A. Yes, we did that. B. Sunday is the weekend. C. Sunday suits me fine. D. Sunday is great day. 93. Nam: What do you think about killing animals like dogs and cats for food? Lan: ____A. It is really cruel. B. prefer dogs to cats.C. Both of them are pets. D. Dogs are really faithful. 94. Lan: Do you think should accept an offer to do voluntary work in the zoo? Nam: ____A. Why did they offer you the job? B. Zoos have lot of animals. C. Voluntary work is meaningful. D. definitely think you should say yes. 95. Nam: I'd like to hear your ideas on how to protect vulnerable species. Lan: ____A. I'd say people's awareness is very important. B. You're always asking me for advice. C. like your ideas so much. D. These animals are vulnerable. 96. Nam: I'm planning to raise couple of rabbits at home. Lan: ____A. Rabbits are very fast. B. I've never seen rabbits before. C. I've decided to raise cat. D. That's good idea. 97. Nam: Do you want me to give you lift home? Lan: ____A. lift? No, I'm afraid of height. B. Thank you. It's very kind of you!C. live in flat on the eighth floor. D. My house doesn't have lift. 98. Nam: If you like, can check the deadline for our assignment Lan: ____A. don't really like this assignment. B. Assignments are just waste of time.C. Thanks, but that won't be necessary. D. am scared of deadlines. 99. Nam: Would you mind if sometimes called at around 10 pm to discuss our assignment? Lan: ____A. No, of course not. B. Yes, of course would. C. mind lot. D. like discussions. 100. Nam: Could you find all the information related to Komodo dragons? Lan: ____A. Komodo dragons are also vulnerable. B. Are they still living? C. I've never heard of them. What do they look like? D. think that'll be very difficult. 101. Lan: Do you enjoy visiting zoos? Nam: ____A. Zoos are places where animals are kept. B. I've visited that zoo twice. C. Yeah, that's really fun. D. like funny animals.102. Lan: Have you ever visited botanical garden or nature park? Nam: ____ A. There is botanical garden in the area. B. Yes, only once when was 12. C. There are lot of trees and flowers in the botanical garden.D. Nature parks are expensive to maintain. 103. Lan: Are you concerned about animals becoming extinct? Nam: ____A. I'm really worried. Our biodiversity will be broken. B. When will they become extinct? C. Which animals are endangered? D. love keeping animals as pets. 104. Nam: What animals in our country are endangered? Lan: ____ A. Are they endangered animals? B. Endangered animals are dangerous. C. Endangered animals should be protected. D. Tigers and elephants are nearly extinct. 105. Lan: How can we protect endangered species? Nam: ____A. It is out of the question. B. Both the governments and individuals need to help them. C. Poachers don't care about endangered animals. D. All endangered animals are extinct.Part V. READING Exercise 8. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or to indicate the correct word that best fits each of the numbered blanks. Alligators have always been the most dangerous predators of the Florida Everglades, (106) ____ their long-held position is now being challenged by (107) ____ population of Burmese pythons.The Burmese python, giant snake measuring up to 20 feet (108) ____ and weighing up to 200 pounds, is very (109) ____ among exotic pet owners. However, as the (110) ____ snakes grow, they become more difficult to cage and handle. To avoid dealing with the snakes, the owners irresponsibly release them into the wild. Since the Everglades is (111) ____ similar to the python's native environment of Southeast Asia, they survive and (112) ____ without difficulty. The issue with the Burmese pythons is their (113) ____ of meals. They eat alligators and endangered birds, which (114) ____ strain on an already fragile ecosystem. Recently 13-foot long Burmese pythonwas found with 5-foot alligator bursting from its stomach. The python died (115) ____ to eat the alligator but larger one would have easily won the struggle. With over 30,000 Burmese pythons now living (116) ____ the Everglades, solution to stop this invasive species is necessary. If the pythons are left unchecked, there is strong possibility they will wipe out variety of species (117) ____ for the functioning of the Everglades ecosystem.106. A. but B. so C. because D. since107. A. grow B. growing C. growth D. grown108. A. length B. lengthen C. long D. longer109. A. popular B. famous C. typical D. scarce110. A. dead B. died C. death D. deadly111. A. quiet B. quite C. quit D. quietly112. A. prospect B. protect C. prosper D. protest113. A. choice B. choose C. chose D. chosen114. A. makes B. gives C. gets D. creates115. A. try B. trying C. tried D. trial116. A. over B. under C. in D. on117. A. necessary B. necessity C. need D. neededExercise 9. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, or to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions. The Sahara Desert is the world's largest hot desert. The Sahara is in North Africa and is as large as the United States. Many people think that an area like this has no animals or plant life, but they are incorrect. In fact, the Sahara Desert has many different 'ecoregions Each ecoregion has different plants and animals living there. The biggest ecoregion is called the 'Sahara Desert ecoregion.' In this area, the climate is extremely dry and extremely hot. The landscape is sandy and dusty with many high dunes. Because the Sahara Desert ecoregion is so hot and dry, there are very few plants and animals. Scientists estimate that there are only 500 species of plants. This is not very much when thinking of how enormous the region is. These plants include acacia trees, palms, spiny shrubs, and grasses. The Sahara is also home to 70 species of mammals. Twenty of these are large mammals. There are about 90 species of birds and around 100 reptiles. The biggest threat to plants and animals in this environment is drying up. Because of this plants have the ability to recover their health after their leaves have dried out completely. Animals can lose 30-60%of their body mass and still survive. Most animals do not get their water from drinking like other ecosystems. Instead, they have adapted to get their water through metabolic processes. This is why they can survive in place like the Sahara Desert ecosystem.118. What is the text mostly about?A. Location of the Sahara Desert. B. Hot weather of the Sahara Desert. C. How animals survive on this Desert. D. The Sahara Desert and its ecosystem. 119. Which of the following is TRUE?A. The Sahara Desert has no animals or plants. B. It is the second largest desert. C. It is in North Africa. D. It is in the United States. 120. In paragraph 1, the word they refers to ____.A. people B. plants C. animals D. ecoregions 121. In paragraph 2, the word estimate is closest in meaning to ____.A. confirm B. calculate C. formulate D. participate 122. All of the following are true about the Sahara Desert EXCEPT ____.A. there are about five hundred types of plants B. seventy species of mammals can be found there C. it is home to about ninety species of birds D. Fewer than 100 reptiles are found there 123. Why can animals and plants survive in the Sahara Desert?A. They try to reduce the water intake. B. They get water from the irrigation system. C. They get water through metabolic process. D. They don't really need water for long time.Exercise 10. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, or to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions. Amphibians are an animal group that includes frogs, toads, salamanders, and newts. These animals live in and out of the water. The number of amphibians on our planet is declining rapidly in both local mass extinctions and population crashes. This is cause for concern as many scientists believe that humans are responsible. Since the 1980s, scientists have noticed decline in amphibian populations. Although many animals areaffected by humans, amphibians have been hit particularly hard. Some scientists believe this is because of their two-stage life cycle. Unlike most animals, amphibians live their lives in two distinct stages. The first is aquatic and the second is terrestrial. This means amphibians are sensitive to environmental changes in the water and on land. They also have permeable skin, which means that toxins and chemicals can easily get into their bodies. At first, some scientists did not believe that human pollution was the cause for changes in amphibian populations. These scientists believed that every species on Earth goes through natural cycles and changes and that there was not enough long-term data to prove that humans were the problem. In recent years, this has changed. Almost all biologists are concerned about the decline in amphibian populations. They are worried not only because many amphibians may go extinct but also because these extinctionswill affect other plants and animals in ecosystems. They believe that the decline in amphibian populations is warning to humans to stop polluting and clean up Earth.124. Which title best summarizes the main idea of the passage? A. Endangered reptiles B. Endangered amphibians C. Amphibian life cycle D. Amphibians and reptiles 125. According to the passage, which of the following is TRUE?A. The number of amphibians is decreasing rapidly.B. The number of amphibians is increasing. C. The number of amphibians is going up.D. The number of amphibians staying constant. 126. In paragraph 2, the word noticed is closest in meaning to ____.A. studied B. analysed C. become aware of D. started to work on 127. In paragraph 2, the word they refers to ____.A. scientists B. humans C. animals D. amphibians 128. According the passage, which of the following is TRUE about amphibians?A. First they live on land, then in the water. B. First they live in the water, then on land. C. They mainly live in water. D. They mainly live on land. 129. In paragraph 2, the word toxins is closest in meaning to ____.A. poisonous substances B. tonic substances C. essential minerals D. essential vitamins 130. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?A. Amphibians contribute greatly to biodiversity. B. All amphibians will go extinct in the near future. C. clean environment may help to protect amphibians from extinction. D. Protecting amphibians is the responsibility of all people on Earth.Part VI. WRITING Exercise 11. Mark the letter A, B, or to indicate the sentence that is closest in meaning to each of the following questions. 131. Five islands of Indonesia are home to Komodo dragons.A. Homes are built for Komodo dragons on five islands of Indonesia. B. Komodo dragons are the only living creatures on Indonesia's islands. C. Komodo dragons live on five islands of Indonesia. D. Komodo dragons prefer to live in hot countries like Indonesia.132. Unless humans stop poaching, many rare animals will go extinct.A. When humans stop poaching, many rare animals will become extinct. B. If people don't stop poaching, lot of rare animals will become extinct. C. As soon as people stop poaching, lot of rare animals will become extinct.D. Provided that people stop poaching, many animals will become extinct. 133. People are not allowed to approach animals in safari parks.A. People are prohibited from approaching animals in safari parks. B. People are advised not to approach animals in safari parks.