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Check Your English Vocabulary for Academic English

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CHECK YOUR VOCABULARY FORACADEMICENGLISHbyDavid PorterA Black LondonTHIRD EDITION0264 0267 0262 025D025A 025C 0275 026502680260 025F0267025A 025D 026A 026D0269 02690268 0263 vk.com/englishlibrarywww.acblack.comFor Ana RitaFirst edition published 2001Second edition published 2003This third edition published 2007 by Black Publishers Ltd38 Soho Square, London W1D 3HB© Copyright A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproduced inany form without the permission of the publishers.A CIP entry for this book is available from the British Library ISBN-10: 7136 8285 XISBN-13: 978 7136 8285 eISBN-13: 978-1-4081-0232-9Text typeset by BlackPrinted in Great Britain at Caligraving Ltd, Thetford, NorfolkThis book is produced using paper that is made from wood grown in manage\\d, sustainable forests. It is natural, renewable and recyclable. The logging and manufacturing processes conform to the envir\\onmental regulations of the country of origin.d g b ]Z \\ u eh` _gZ ] j mi ih c vk.com/englishlibraryPage TitleUnit One4 1a Fill in the gaps5 1b Choose the right word6 1c Finish the sentence6 1d Word substitution7 1e Choose the best word8 1f Make collocation9 Vocabulary sheetUnit Two10 2a Fill in the gaps11 2b Choose the right word12 2c Finish the sentence13 2d Word substitution14 2e Choose the best word15 2f Make collocation16 Vocabulary sheetUnit Three17 3a Fill in the gaps18 3b Choose the right word19 3c Finish the sentence20 3d Word substitution21 3e Choose the best word22 3f Make collocation23 Vocabulary sheetUnit Four24 4a Fill in the gaps24 4b Choose the right word25 4c Finish the sentence26 4d Word substitution27 4e Choose the best word28 4f Make collocation29 Vocabulary sheetUnit Five30 5a Fill in the gaps31 5b Choose the right word32 5c Finish the sentence33 5d Word substitution34 5e Choose the best word35 5f Make collocation23 Vocabulary sheetUnit Six37 6a Fill in the gaps38 6b Choose the right word38 6c Finish the sentence39 6d Word substitution40 6e Choose the best word41 6f Make collocation42 Vocabulary sheetPage TitleUnit Seven43 7a Fill in the gaps43 7b Choose the right word44 7c Finish the sentence45 7d Word substitution46 7e Choose the best word47 7f Make collocation48 Vocabulary sheetUnit Eight49 8a Fill in the gaps49 8b Choose the right word50 8c Finish the sentence51 8d Word substitution52 8e Choose the best word53 8f Make collocation54 Vocabulary sheetUnit Nine55 9a Fill in the gaps56 9b Choose the right word56 9c Finish the sentence57 9d Word substitution58 9e Choose the best word59 9f Make collocation60 Vocabulary sheetUnit Ten61 10a Fill in the gaps61 10b Choose the right word62 10c Finish the sentence63 10d Word substitution63 10e Choose the best word64 10f Make collocation65 Vocabulary sheetUnit Eleven66 11a Fill in the gaps67 11b Choose the right word68 11c Finish the sentence69 11d Word substitution70 11e Choose the best word71 11f Make collocation72 Vocabulary sheetAnswer key73 Units One to Four74 Units Four to Eight75 Units Eight to Eleven76 IndexContentsContents1© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students(978 07475 6624 3).0264 0267 0262 025D025A 025C 0275 026502680260 025F0267025A 025D 026A 026D0269 02690268 0263 vk.com/englishlibraryThe purpose of this book is to help students learn common core of voca\\bulary which will be useful for almostany subject studied at college or university. Advice to the StudentObtain DictionaryBefore attempting to use this book, you will need to obtain good Engli\\sh-English dictionary, such as theEasier English Dictionary for Students(ISBN: 978 07475 6624 3) published by A&C Black Publishers Ltd, whichthis workbook has been based on.Using your DictionaryA dictionary is really long list of individual words, but in normal si\\tuations, words are very rarely used on theirown, appearing instead together with other words. For this reason, the \\vocabulary you will learn in this bookis presented in example sentences which will help you to understand the words, to rememberthem moreeasily, and to use them correctly.Doing the ExercisesThere are different types of exercise in this book, but one small exampl\\e will be enough to show you how touse the book. In these two sentences from Unit One, notice first of all\\ that the other words in these sentencesshow you the grammar of these words here an adjective and then ve\\rb.1. Although not exactly identical, the two books are so __________ to \\each other that one writer must have copied much of his book from the other.2. The Prime Minister set up committee of financial experts to help \\him discuss and __________ new policies.Working Out the Word or MeaningAlso, notice that the other words in the sentences can help you to guess\\ the meaning of the missing words.In the examples above, we can see from the phrases not exactly identical and copied much of his book that theadjective in the first example must mean something like almost the same. In the same way, because thepolicies mentioned in the second example are described as new, the verb in the second example seems tomean plan or prepare:1. Although not exactly identical the two books are so ___?adj?___ to each other that one writer must have copied much of his book from the other.2. The Prime Minister set up committee of financial experts to help \\him discuss and ___?v?___ new policies.Sample AnswersWith the exercise from which these sentences were taken, the words similar(adj)and formulate (v), wereincluded in the list of answers. Because of the grammar of these words \\and their meanings which we cancheck in the dictionary if necessary the completed sentences will l\\ook like this:1. Although not exactly identical, the two books are so similarto each other that one writer must have copied much of his book from the other.2. The Prime Minister set up committee of financial experts to help \\him discuss and formulate new policies.Keep Your Own NotesNext, whenever you find out what new word means, write it into your vo\\cabulary notebook, which you canorganise in alphabetical order like dictionary. With any new word, yo\\u should copy either the sentence fromthis book or the example from the dictionary. This will help you to lea\\rn the word.Introduction2Introduction© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).0264 0267 0262 025D025A 025C 0275 026502680260 025F0267025A 025D 026A 026D0269 02690268 0263 vk.com/englishlibraryWords With Many MeaningsWhen you do look in your dictionary, you may find that one word has many\\ meanings. If you compare these,however, you will often find that they are not so different from each ot\\her, so try to look for one centralmeaning.Word That Go TogetherRemember also to write down any other words which are often found togeth\\er with your new word. Forexample, notice in your dictionary that we normally use the word toafter the word similar(a \'dependentpreposition\') and that it is usually policies, plansor programs and so on which are formulated (examples of\'collocations\'). This information will help you to use the new words c\\orrectly.To sum up: decide if the word in the example sentence is verb, noun or an adjec\\tive read the other words to help you guess the meaning of the new word then if necessary use your dictionary to select suitable answer if possible, choose one central meaning for the word from the dictionary\\ entry write down your new word with an example sentence to help you remember i\\ts meaning note down any dependent prepositions or collocations to help you use the\\ word correctlyAdvice to the TeacherThe purpose of this book is to equip non-native speakers of English at u\\pper intermediate level and above witha core of sub-technical vocabulary relevant to the full range of univers\\ity subjects.It is envisaged that this book will be used to supplement an English for\\ Academic Purposes/Study Skills course,at foundation, undergraduate or postgraduate level. It may either be us\\ed in class or be assigned for study ona self-access basis.The vocabulary items presented here are based on research by I. S. P. Na\\tion*, which culminated in series ofapproximately 800 words ranked in sets according to their frequency of o\\ccurrence in texts drawn from anumber of very different academic subjects.Since the order of the eleven units presented in this book reflect this \\ranking, the words in Unit One have awider range of application than those in Unit Two and so on, which means\\ that students should work throughthe book sequentially.Inside the units, each word is presented in an example sentence which ai\\ms firstly to provide context fromwhich students may be able to infer the meaning of the word in question \\and secondly to give instances ofassociated words such as collocates and dependent prepositions. This fo\\rm of presentation will allow studentsto find out not only what words mean, but also how to use them.The exercises include gap-filling, word matching, identifying synonyms, \\matching sentence fragments, andword-completion. In all cases, the style and content of the examples \\have written are intended to be typicalof language used in academic contexts. In approaching the exercises, it is vital that students use dictionaries\\ appropriately, and far preferable that theyuse an English-English learner\'s dictionary rather than translation di\\ctionary. Similarly, it is important thatstudents do not regard simply filling in blanks as the sole purpose of t\\his book. Instead, students shouldapproach vocabulary learning actively. This means keeping vocabulary \\notebook in which they should beencouraged to write an example for each new word, with special attention\\ being paid to any dependentprepositions and collocations. Although the immediate goal is for students to learn the words here, if \\it can encourage students to take amore active, thoughtful approach to vocabulary learning, this book will \\have succeeded in its wider aim.*Nation, I. S. P. (1990) Teaching and Learning Vocabulary. Boston, MA: Heinle Heinle.IntroductionIntroduction3© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students(978 07475 6624 3).0264 0267 0262 025D025A 025C 0275 026502680260 025F0267025A 025D 026A 026D0269 02690268 0263 vk.com/englishlibraryFrom the following list, use each word only once to complete the sentences below.Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the \\form of theword:Unit One41a Fill in the gaps© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference seeEasier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).arbitrary (adj) assign (v) context (n) criterion (n) data (n)denote (v) devise (v) formulate (v) ignore (v) impact (n)similar (adj) summary (n) usage (n) vertical (adj)1. Although not exactly identical, the two books are so ___________________\\__ to each other that oneauthor must have copied much of his book from the other.2. The Prime Minister set up committee of financial experts to help him d\\iscuss and _________________ new policies. 3. It is often possible to guess the meaning of word from the other words\\ around it that is to say, the _____________________.4. In 1990, the British researcher Tim Berners-Lee _____________________ th\\e first browser, and so paved the way for the development of the World Wide Web.5. In newspapers, the layout of the columns is _____________________, while\\ the rows run across the page horizontally.6. The rise in the number of deaths from AIDS has had very significant __\\___________________ on people\'s sexual behaviour. 7. The _____________________ of drugs has increased significantly in spite \\of more severe penalties such as longer prison sentences.8. Students should not try to write down everything they hear in lecture,\\ but just make _____________________ of the most important points.9. We use the term \"class\" to _________________________ groups of people wh\\o share the same social and economic backgrounds.10. In one case, murderer may go to prison for life, while another may be \\set free: it all seems completely __________________.11. The new journalist was ____________________ to researching the election \\promises of the main political parties.12. Before we can judge government\'s success, we have to decide the ______\\______________, such as unemployment, defence or taxation.13. One student failed because he completely ________________________ the in\\structions on the paper, although they appeared at the top of every page.14. Market researchers use _________________________ such as people\'s spend\\ing patterns as well as information about age and occupation to decide on the most effective \\marketing strategies.Don\'t forget to keep record of the words and expressions that you have\\ learnt, reviewyour notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items wheneve\\r possible.0264 0267 0262 025D025A 025C 0275 026502680260 025F0267025A 025D 026A 026D0269 02690268 0263 vk.com/englishlibraryIn each of the sentences below, decide which word in boldis more suitable.1b Choose the right wordUnit One5© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students(978 07475 6624 3).Don\'t forget to keep record of the words and expressions that you have\\ learnt, reviewyour notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items wheneve\\r possible.1. During the 1970\'s and 1980\'s, it became increasingly evident visiblethat companies in the Westwere uncompetitive.2. The United Kingdom makes publishesmore books than any other country.3. There has been major road accident, involving including23 cars and 16 lorries.4. On the basis of the latest survey, we know that most people have very \\negative bleak view ofpoliticians and their parties.5. In many parts of the world, people are becoming more worried about the d\\anger of pollution and its effect on the environment ecology.6. Education experts from France travelled to Japan to evaluate judge the secondary school systemthere.7. Although it is not very big, the library has an excellent range varietyof books, journals and otherresources for study.8. Increasingly, the design of buildings is being adjusted modifiedto allow easier access for disabledpeople.9. The lack of extra student accommodation restricted narrowedthe expansion in student numberswhich the university was planning.10. Many students acquire derivea great deal of enjoyment and satisfaction from their time atuniversity.11. Although the world is getting warmer slowly, the increase in temperature\\ varies fluctuatesfromcountry to country.12. Following the bank raid, the police followed pursued the robbers but were unable to catch them.13. Assessment on this course includes consists of coursework (30%) and examinations (70%).0264 0267 0262 025D025A 025C 0275 026502680260 025F0267025A 025D 026A 026D0269 02690268 0263 vk.com/englishlibraryChoose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath:1d Word substitutionFrom the list below, choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in boldwithout changing the meaning of the sentence. Remember that you may nee\\d to change theform or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: Unit One61c Finish the sentence© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference seeEasier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).1. like your essay, but want you to illustrate…2. What will the result be if in the future we assume…3. Students may be asked to compare many alternative…4. The Channel Tunnel between France and England was constructed… 5. Everyone wants to be happy, but we probably all define…6. Many universities now have language centres to facilitate…7. Numbers and results are not particularly useful in themselves; we need t\\o interpret…8. In spite of warnings about cancer, many Westerners equate…9. Advertisers use variety of techniques …10. At first, the police viewed the crimes as random… 11. It may be the case that no solution is possible, given the magnitude…12. Although computers are becoming increasingly complex,… 13. The investigation was stopped because the witnesses could not identify…a. …theories, from which they have to select the most convincing.b. …happiness in many different ways.c. …that nearly everyone has access to motor car?d. …the programs they use are becoming much easier to operate.e. …a sun tan with health and youthfulness.f. …the man they had seen commit the robbery.g. …language learning for international students.h. …at cost of over £8 billion.i. …of this problem.j. …them to understand what they actually mean.k. …events, but realised later that there was pattern linking them.l. …to persuade consumers to buy products and services.m. …your points by providing some supporting examples.comply with (v) conclude (v) equivalent (adj) guarantee (n)imply (v) method (n) obvious (adj) presume (v)proceed (v) require (v) specify (v) sum (n)1. If company does not observehealth and safety laws, it may be fined veryheavily if any of its workers are injured.2. For many years, $4 was equal to £1.3. University regulations state that students must pass 18 modules tograduate.4. Anybody driving car is obliged by law to have insurance.________________________________________________________________________________0264 0267 0262 025D025A 025C 0275 026502680260 025F0267025A 025D 026A 026D0269 02690268 0263 vk.com/englishlibrary1e Choose the best wordFor each of the sentences here, choose the best word from a, or c:Unit One7© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students(978 07475 6624 3).5. On the basis of their examination results, it was clear that most students hadcompletely misunderstood the first part of the paper.6. Many people think that oil will run out in the next 100 years, but they \\are assuming that we will continue to use oil at the same rate as today.7. Most electrical products have one- or two-year warrantyin casesomething should go wrong.8. One problem facing overseas students is adapting to new teaching techniques .9. The fact that crime increases when unemployment goes up seems to suggest link between the two.10. It may cost an overseas student around £15,000 per year to live and s\\tudy in Britain, which is very large amount of money.11. The lecturer gave the students 10 minute break before continuing withthe rest of her lecture.12. At the end of her talk, the lecturer finishedwith brief review of the mainpoints.1. In this first assignment, we will _______________________ your work and \\then give you detailedfeedback on how to improve your writing.a.assess b.judge c.measure2. In seminar or tutorial, everyone should take part rather than allow on\\e person to _______________________ the discussion.a.overwhelm b.dominate c.oppress3. Although it is impossible to give _________________________ age, we be\\lieve that the woman was between 25 and 30 when she died.a.definite b.certain c.absolute4. Rather than try to treat it, the best _________________________ to the p\\roblem of poor public health may be to attempt to prevent it.a.way b.method c.approach5. Surprisingly perhaps, the biggest _________________________ health risk \\for tourists travelling abroad is actually road traffic accidents.a.potential b.possible c.theoretical6. Water is made up of two _______________________, namely oxygen and hydro\\gen. a.sections b.aspects c.elements7. Computers can be difficult to repair because there may be hundreds of di\\fferent ________________ inside.a.components b.pieces c.parts8. Because Paris is expensive, many organisations pay higher salaries to __\\_______________ for the high cost of living there.a.compensate b.adjust c.redress9. Many people were killed instantly at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but thousan\\ds more died from _________________ radiation sickness.a.succeeding b.following c.subsequent10. The clothing of men and women used to be quite _________________________\\__, whereas today women often wear trousers as well as men.a.distinct b.diverse c.distinguished11. Research _______________________ that customers want free car-parking wh\\en they go shopping. a.claims b.indicates c.points out12. In political terms, the Middle East is one of the most unstable ________\\__________________ of the world.a.locations b.places c.regions13. The ___________________________ cause of death today in Britain is heart\\ disease, with cancer in second place.a.first b.prime c.initial________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________0264 0267 0262 025D025A 025C 0275 026502680260 025F0267025A 025D 026A 026D0269 02690268 0263 vk.com/englishlibraryTrên đây chỉ là phần trích dẫn 10 trang đầu của tài liệu và có thế hiển thị lỗi font, bạn muốn xem đầyđủ tài liệu gốc thì ấn vào nút Tải về phía dưới.
2020-09-25 23:48:23