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Unit 2. URBANISATIONPart I. PHONETICS Exercise 1. Mark the letter A, B, or to indicate the word whose underlined part diffe rs from the other three in pronunciation in each of the following questions. 1. A. none B. ph ne C. st ne D. ne 2. A. fe B. ke C. live D. vely 3. A. ear B. ear C. ear D. swear 4. A. ncient B. educ te C. str nger D. transfer 5. A. acc ou nt B. ast ou nd C. ou ntry D. ou nting Exercise 2. Mark the letter A, B, or to indicate the word that differs from the other three in the position of the primary stress in each of the following questions. 6. A. emigrate B. immigrate C. advocate D. inhabit 7. A. confide B. comfort C. inflate D. severe 8. A. biology B. environment C. geography D. scientific9. A. estimate B. prestigious C. proportion D. urbanity 10. A. drawback B. greenhouse C. mindset D. overloadPart II. VOCABULARY Exercise 3. Mark the letter A, B, or to indicate the word(s) CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions. 11. She's down-to-earth woman with no pretensions. A. ambitious B. creative C. idealistic D. practical 12. It is crucial that urban people not look down on rural areas. A. evil B. optional C. unnecessary D. vital 13. Polish artist Pawel Kuzinsky creates satirical paintings filled with thought-provoking messages about the world. A. inspirational B. provocative stimulating D. universal 14. She was brought up in the slums of Leeds. A. downtown area B. industrial area C. poor area D. rural area 15. The Freephone 24 Hour National Domestic Violence Helpline is national service for women experiencing domestic violence, their family, friends, colleagues and others calling on their behalf. A. in the same country B. in the same family C. in the same office D. in the same school16. The promise of jobs and prosperity pulls people to cities.A. education B. employment C. stabilization D. wealth 17. With so many daily design resources, how do you stay up-to-date with technology without spending too much time on it? A. connect to Internet all day B. update new status C. get latest information D. use social network daily18. Online Business School also offers interest free student loans to UK students. A. no extra fee B. no limited time C. no repayment D. no interest payments 19. Many illnesses in refugee camps are the result of inadequate sanitation .A. cleanliness B. dirtiness C. pollution D. uncleanliness 20. There has been hot debate among the scientists relating to the pros and cons of using robotic probes to study distant objects in space. A. problems and solutions B. advantages and disadvantages C. solutions and limitations D. causes and effects 21. Her style of dress was conservative She never wears items that are too tight, short or low-cut. A. high-fashion B. traditional C. trendy D. up to date 22. Many of the immigrants have intermarried with the island's original inhabitants A. foreigners B. landlord C. newcomer D. dwellersExercise 4. Mark the letter A, B, or to indicate the word(s) OPPOSITE in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions. 23. This restaurant was highly recommended for good service, delicious food and kind-hearted boss. A. ambitious and greedy B. attentive and helpfulC. generous and gracious D. polite and friendly 24. Since 1979, ULI has honored outstanding development projects in the private, public, and nonprofit sectors with the ULI Global Awards for Excellence program, which today is widely recognized as the development community's most prestigious awards program. A. important B. notable C. ordinary D. respected 25. Many people move to urban areas seeking for job opportunity as well as stable employment. A. durable B. long-lasting C. steady D. temporary 26. In cities, two of the most pressing problems facing the world today also come together: poverty and environmental degradation .A. destruction B. poisoning C. pollution D. progression 27. Unemployment is massive problem for the government at the moment. A. main B. major C. minor D. primary28. cost-effective way to fight crime is that instead of making punishments more severe, the authorities should increase the odds that lawbreakers will be apprehended and punished quickly .A. economical B. practical C. profitable D. worthless 29. propose that we wait until the budget has been announced before committing ourselves to any expenditure .A approve recommend reject D. suggest 30 Until 1986 most companies would not even allow women to take the exams, but such gender discriminationis now disappearing .A unfairness injustice C. partiality D. equality 31. The best hope of' avoiding downmarket tabloid TV future lies in the pressure currently being put on the networks to clean up their act .A expensive famous poor quality D. uncreative 32. Without economie security and amid poor living conditions, crime is inevitable .A assured B. compulsory inescapable D. preventable 33. Increases in motor vehicle usage have resulted in congestion on the roads. blockage B. obstruction opening D. overcrowding 34. Urbanization is the shi of people from rural to urban areas, and the result is the growth of cities .A maintenance B. movement C. transposition D. variationExercise 5. Mark the letter A, B, or to indicate the underlined part that needs correction in each of the following questions .35. Urban development ean magnify the risk of environmental hazards for example flash flooding .A D36. Even if rural areas are winning or losing from increased trade, however remains uncertain.A D37. Strong city planning will be essential in managing those and others difficulties as the world's urban areas Dwell .38. Because of urbanization continues, not only the infrastructure for health but also other social services in Ccities need improving D39 Government should be used national resources in more efficient way in order to meet the needs of Dgrowing populations .40. What problems could it cause and how citizens should prevent these challenges will be covered in my Dessay .41. Overpopulation is an undesirable condition where the number of existing human population exceeding the Ccarrying capacity of Earth. D42. The loan is interest-free, which means that you will only pay the fee listing on our website, with no extra Cpayment in the form of interest. D43. Food prices have raised so rapidly in the past few months that some families have been forced to ter their Deating habits.44. Because of severe asthma attacks the doctor suggested his patient to stop smoking.A D45. Improving the status of women through increasing access to reproductive health care affecting migration Dand urbanization trends.46. Poor air and water quality insufficient water available and high energy consumption are exacerbated by Cdemands of urban environments. D47. Starting with the foremost problem engendered by overpopulation is traffic congestion D48. Between the time of the plague and the 21st century, there were hundreds and thousands of wars, natural Ccalamities and hazards man-made D49. It is argued that high costs of living and rising transport difficulties being two of the most serious problems Cbrought about by overpopulation in cities.D50. Overpopulation and negative effect of it has been major concerns in cities all around the globe.A DPart III. GRAMMAR Exercise 6. Mark the letter A, B, or to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions. 51. It is necessary that you ____ able to come with us. A. are B. be C. being D. to be 52. suggest that Peter ____ the directions carefully before assembling the bicycle. A. read B. reading C. reads D. to read53. We request that she ____ the window. A. not open B. not to open C. not opening D. to not open 54. The UK is considering the proposal that it ____ compensations for damages of the Indian embassy. A. been paying B. is paying C. paid D. pay 55. Howard prefers that ____ to his party. A. am going B. go C. going D. will go 56. Mary demanded that the heater ____ immediately. Her apartment was freezing. A. repaired B. be repaired C. being repaired D. been repaired 57. The monk insisted that the tourists ____ the temple until they had removed their shoes.A. not enter not entering C. not to enter D. to not enter 58. The recommendation that she ____ holiday was carried out.A. has taken B. take C. taken D. taking 59. Was it really necessary that ____ there watching you the entire time you were rehearsing for the play? It was really boring watching you repeat the scenes over and over again.A. am sitting B. be sitting C. being sitting D. sitting 60. propose that we all ____ together so that nobody gets lost along the way. A. be driving B. drive C. driven D. driving 1. It is impolite that you ____ there when he gets off the plane. A. be not standing B. been not standing C. not be standing D. not been standing 62. It is recommended that the vehicle owner ____ present at the court. A. be B. be not not being D. not to be 63. Congress has decreed that the gasoline tax ____.A. abolish B. abolished C. be abolished D. been abolished 64. The doctor recommended that she ____ specialist about the problem. A. be seen B. seeing C. should be seen D. should see 65. It is essential that she ____ the truth. A. told B. should be tell C. should be told D. should been told 66. It has been proposed that we ____ the topic. A. not change B. not to change C. to change D. to not change 67. They hope to ____ cure for the disease. A. catch up on B. come up with C. fill up with D. go out with 68. Don't worry, we'll try to ____ the problems and find solution for everyone. A. carry on B. make up C. sort out D. switch off 69. Tony was totally opposed but if you give him some time to think about what you said. I'm sure he will ____ to your point of view. A. come round B. deal with C. fit out D. keep down 70. The rapid rise in the global population is not expected to start ____ until past the middle of this century, by which time it will have reached billion .A. falling off knocking down C. looking over D. passing out 71. In order to apply for credit card, Tom first has to ____ four-page form at the bank. A. catch on B. come up with C. fill in D. hand out 72. The teacher explained so much stuff in just one lesson that most of the students could ____ only half of it. A. break up B. get through C. let out D. take in 73. The map of top ten most densely ____ countries in the world includes Monaco, Singapore, Bahrain, Malta and Bangladesh.A. populated B. populating C. population D. popular 74. Interactive games could be used in order to keep students ____.A. engage B. engaged C. engagement D. engaging 75. We could mention some solution and government ____ in the conclusion.A. initiates B. initiatives C. initiations D. initiators 76. Women who ____ due to marriage are not considered to be ____. A. migrate migrants B. migrate migrators C. migrant migrators D. migrant migrations 77. Each child had to ___ short speech to the rest of the class. A. do B. carry out make D. take 78. Although it was more than an hour late, the superstar finally showed up and ____ the attention of the audience. A. grabbed B. held C. paid D. took 79. Has the interviewer ____ the date? Yes, it's on next Monday. A. amend B. fixed C. moved D. revised 80. Don't worry. We're in good time; there's ____ to hurry.A. impossible B. no need C. no purpose D. unnecessary 81. Overpopulation in urban areas tends to create unfavourable conditions, which may result in __ __ of food in developing countries.A. damages B. failures shortages D. supplies 82. He wasn't able to ____ with the stresses and strains of the job. A. catch up B. come down C. cope D. handle 83. Urbanization can bring social health and benefit; ____ it also has its drawbacks.A. by the way furthermore C. however D. moreover 84. During the lesson, if you have questions or comments, please feel free to ____ them.A. enlarge B. increase C. go up D. raise 85. We have to come to the conclusion. We are ____ out of time.A. driving B. going C. running D. walking86. Thanks to the development in technology, students have ____ to good resources.A. been accessed B. access C. accessing D. assessed87. The rate of urbanization is low ____ the rate of urban growth is high. A. but B. however C. so D. therefore88. The level of urban unemployment and numbers of ____ are high.A. joblessness B. the jobless C. the joblessness D. the jobs 89. high increase in crime rates is ____ by the majority of the people in urban cities.A. affected B. gone through C. influenced D. suffered 90. Anna organized few games to ____ the ice when the new students first arrived. A. break B. crack C. drill D. meltPart IV. SPEAKING Exercise 7. Mark the letter A, B, or to indicate the correct response to each of the following exchanges .91-99: Three friends Mark, Anna and Jenny are talking about their up-coming English presentation on urbanization.91. Mark: "How do you do?" Jenny “____”A. I'm well. Thank you. B. How do you do? C. Not too bad. D. Yeah, OK 92. Mark: “____” Jenny: "I think there are various reasons." A. Do you mind if think about reasons for urbanization? B. I'd like to invite you to think about reasons for urbanization. C. What do you think about reasons for urbanization?D. Would you mind thinking about the reasons for urbanization? 93. Jenny: "I think higher living standard is one of the reasons that many people want to be city dweller." Mark: “____”A. couldn't agree more. B. It's nice of you to say so.C. That's quite all right. D. Why not? 94. Anna: "Personally, love peaceful and quiet life in rural areas." Jenny: “____”A. Neither do I. B. No, won't. C. So do I. D. Yes, like it. 95 Anna: "In my opinion, some people should stay in rural areas as well as work on agriculture." Mark: “____”A. I'm not afraid don't agree. B. I'm not sure about that. C. I'm so sorry, but agree D. Not at all, thanks. 96. Jenny: "Do you think we'll finish in time?” Anna: “____”A. know so. B. think not. C. Well, hope so. D. Yes, that's right. 97. Mark: "What about starting the presentation with results of our research? Jenny: ____ “A. Congratulations! B. Sounds great! C. Well done! D. What pity! 98. Anna: “So do you think we should add some pictures and videos?” Jenny: “____”A. None. B. Not much. C. Please do. D. Sure. 99. Mark: “Let's collect information and then create the PowerPoint slides.” Jenny: "Oh, ____?A. good idea. B. don't. C. need it. D. why is that? 100-105: Mark is talking to his classmate Alex after their performance at the first round of the English presentation competition. 100. Mark: “We've passed the first round." Alex: “____”A. Congratulations! B. Do you? C. It's nice of you to say so. D. That's good idea. 101. Alex: "You've got brilliant performance today!”Mark: ____”A. do. B. Okay. C. Thank you. D. You, too. 102. Alex: "We've tried hard but we couldn't make it!” Mark: “Oh. ____”A. I'm sorry. B. What pity! C. Thank you. D. You are welcome. 103. Alex: ____” Mark: “Oh, it's great!” A. How is the English presentation competition like? B. What do you like about the English presentation competition? C. What do you think of the English presentation competition?D. Would you like the English presentation competition? 104. Mark: "In the next round, we are going to present about the pros and cons of urbanization." Alex: ____”A. Good chance. B. Good day. C. Good luck D. Good time. 105. Alex: "It was nice meeting you. Have nice weekend”. Mark: "Thanks. ____”A. hope so, too. B. The same to you. C. Wish the same to me. D. Wish you be the same.Part V. READING Exercise 8. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, or to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks. Rapid urbanization can (106) ____ long-term economic, social and environmental promise for developing countries (107) ____ investments made now in infrastructure, housing and public services are efficient and sustainable, the World Bank says in new report. In the next two decades, cities are (108) ____ to expand by another two billion residents, as people move in unprecedented (109) ___ from rural areas to pursue hopes and aspirations in cities. More than 90 (110) ____ of this urban population growth is expected to occur in the developing world, (111) ____ many cities are already struggling to provide basic (112) ____ such as water, electricity, transport, healthservices and education. Report authors note that (113) ____ new urban growth will not take (114) ____ in the “megacities” of the world e.g. Rio de Janeiro, Jakarta or New Delhi (115) ____ rather in less commonly recognized “secondary” cities places like Fushun in China, and Surat in India. help policymakers prepare for and manage growth, the report distills lessons (116) ____ from 12 countries across all geographic regions and stages of urbanization. It then translates these global lessons (117) ____ practical policy advice. 106. A. bring B. carry C. hold D. take 107 A. if B. unless C. whether D. while 108. A. predictable B. predicted C. predicting D. predictions 109. A. amounts B. numbers C. ranges D. sums110 A. per cent B. percentage C. proportion D. rate 111. A. what B. where C. which D. why 112. A. demands B. needs C. orders D. uses 113. A. almost B. most C. mostly D. nearly 114. A. form B. hand C. place D. time 115 A. but B. nor C. or D. yet 116. A. are learned B. being learned C. learned D. learning 117. A. by B. into C. up to D. up withExercise 9. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, or to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions. The increase in urbanization causes different problems. Air and water pollution are amongst the major issue we have to tackle In the first place, cars, factories and burning waste emit dangerous gases that change the air quality in our cities and pose threats to our health. Dangerous gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides cause respiratory diseases, for instant, bronchitis and asthma. Those are also proved to have long-term effects on the environment. Furthermore, with the increased population, it becomes difficult to manage the waste generated in cities.Most of the waste is discharged or dumped into rivers or onto streets. The waste pollutes water and makes it unfit for human consumption. Subsequently, it becomes more and more difficult for city dwellers to get clean water. Some cities in Africa are unable to provide adequate water supply because most of the water is lost in pipe leakages. In fact, most city dwellers in developing countries are forced to boil their water or to buy bottled water, which is very expensive. There are several actions that could be taken to eradicate the problems described above. Firstly, simplesolution would be joining community efforts to address problems affecting your city. Ask your parents, friends and relatives to join in as well. These efforts might include clean-up campaigns, recycling projects and signature campaign to ask the government to do something about the situation. second measure would be encouraging your teacher to talk about these problems and to discuss how young people can help to solve them. Finally, writing to local organizations working on these issues for ideas on how you can contribute to solve them.118. The word tackle in paragraph is closest in meaning to ____.A. deal with B. make up C. try on turn down 119. The word those in paragraph refers to ____.A. bronchitis and asthma B. carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides C. dangerous gases respiratory diseases 120. According to the passage, in some cities in Africa ____.A. people are allowed to dump waste into rivers and on streets B. people aren't provided enough water due to leaking pipes C. people have found some solutions to the problemsD. people would rather use boiling water and bottled water 121. Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?A. City problems should be taught and be topic for students to discuss at school. B. Children must ask for their parent's permission before joining community efforts. C. Participators might take part in different kinds of projects and campaigns .D. People can contribute in solving the problems by writing to local organizations working on these issues. 122. Which of the following would serve as the best title for the passage?A. Environment degradation: Air and water pollution B. Environmental pollution: Problems and actions C. Increasing urbanization: Causes and effects D. Increasing urbanization: Effects and solutionsExercise 10. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, or to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions. Buying house is the single largest financial investment an individual makes. Yet, in India this act is fraught with risk and individuals depend on weak laws for justice. Occasionally, deviant promoters are called to account as was the case in the detention of Unitech's promoters. This incident shows up the fallout of an absence of proper regulation to cover contracts between buyers and real estate promoters. Areal estate bill, which is presently pending in Rajya Sabha, seeks to fill this gap. It has been debated for over two years and should be passed by Parliament in the budget session. India is in the midst of rapid urbanization and urban population is expected to more than double to about900 million over the next three decades. Unfortunately, even the current population does not have adequate housing. government estimate in 2012 put the shortage at nearly 19 million units. If this shortage is to be alleviated quickly, India's messy real estate sector needs reforms .The real estate bill seeks to set standards for contracts between buyers and sellers. Transparency, rare commodity in real estate, is enforced as promoters have to upload project details on the regulators' website. Importantly, standard definitions of terms mean that buyers will not feel cheated after taking possession of house. In order to protect buyers who pay upfront, part of the money collected for real estate project is ring-fenced in separate bank account. Also, given the uncertainty, which exists in India on land titles, the real estate bill provides title insurance. This bill has been scrutinized by two parliamentary committees and its passage now brooks no delay. This bill is an important step in cleaning up the real estate market, but the journey should not end with it. State governments play significant role in real estate and they are often the source of problems. Some estimates suggest that real estate developers have to seek approvals of as many as 40 central and state departments, which lead to delays and an escalation in the cost of houses. Sensibly, NDA government's project to provide universal urban housing forces states to institute reforms to access central funding. Without real estate reforms at the level of states, it will not be possible tomeet the ambition of making housing accessible for all urban dwellers.